A number of sources (Forbes and VOX, for example) have weighed in against Rubio on that claim.
PolitiFact joined the chorus with a fact check calling Rubio's claim "False":
Neither salary nor labor statistics back up Rubio’s claim. Statistically, philosophy majors make more money than welders -- with much more room to significantly increase pay throughout their careers.We found Rubio's claim interesting from a fact-checking perspective before seeing PolitiFact's version of the story. We wondered if anyone who has a degree in philosophy counts as a philosopher. After all, a person could have a degree in philosophy yet work as a welder. Is that person a philosopher or a welder? The same goes for philosophy professors. Are philosophy professors paid for philosophizing or teaching?
We found a post at the conservative blog Power Line that expressed the argument nicely:
Polifact’s analysis is flawed. One doesn’t become a philosopher by majoring philosophy. John and I both so majored and we don’t claim ever to have been philosophers.How would PolitiFact have evaluated the issue if Rubio's statement had come from a Democrat, we wonder?
We became lawyers. Our pay reflected what lawyers, not what philosophers, make.